definitions archive 7 • definitions archive 1
• definitions archive 2
• definitions archive 3
• definitions archive 4
• definitions archive 5
• definitions archive 6
• return to definitions front page
  • Kilchreest
    Photography © 2006
    Knockbeha Mountain
    Knockbeha Mountain

    Mary Glyn lives under Slieve-nan-Or, the Golden Mountain, where the last battle will be fought in the last great war of the world; so that the sides of Gortaveha, a lesser mountain, will stream with blood.

    There is a river by her house that marks the boundary between Galway and Clare; and there are stepping-stones in the river, so that she can cross from Connaught to Munster when she has a mind. But she cannot do her marketing when she has a mind; for the nearest town, Gort, is ten miles away. The roof of her little cabin is thatched with rushes, and a garden of weeds grows on it, and the rain comes through. But she is soon to have a new thatch; for she thinks she won't live long, and she wouldn't like the rain to be coming down on her when she is dead and laid out. There is heather in blow on the hills about her home, and foxglove reddens the clay-banks, and loosetrife the marshy hollows; and rush-cotton waves its little white flags over the bogs.

    And Mrs. Casey comes and looks at the stepping-stones now and again, for she is a Clare woman; and though she has lived fifty years in Connaught, she is not yet quite reconciled to it, and would never have made it her home if she could have seen it before she came. And some who do not live among the bogs and the heather, but among the green pastures and the grey stones of Aidne, come to Slieve Echtge and learn unwritten truths from the lips of Mary and her friends. p. 104-5

    "Mountain Theology", from "Poets and Dreamers: Studies & Translations from the Irish" (Second Edition, 1903)
    Lady Gregory

    Source: Internet Archive


    Clare (county of), a maritime county of the province of Munster, bounded on the east and south by Lough Derg and the river Shannon, which successively separate it from the counties of Tipperary, Limerick, and Kerry; on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the north-west by Galway bay; while on the north and north-east an imaginary boundary separates it from the county of Galway.

    The inhabitants of this tract, in the time of Ptolemy, are designated by him Gangani, and represented as inhabiting also some of the southern parts of the present county of Galway: in the Irish language their appellation was Siol Gangain, and they are stated, both by Camden and Dr. Charles O'Conor, to have been descended from the Concani of Spain. The present county formed from a very early period a native principality, designated Tuath-Mumhan, or Thomond, signifying "North Munster". p.329

    "A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland" (Vol I, 1840)
    Samuel Lewis

    Source: Internet Archive


    At Limerick we stayed a couple of hours only, enough to get a wash and a rest at Cruise's Hotel, and then O'Brien, having gathered information about what there was going on in the neighbourhood, decided that we were to go first to Bodyke, where evictions were in progress, and from that to Tomgreany, where there was to be a small meeting, and then by a long night's march to Woodford, the real object of our expedition.

    ...we had twenty weariful Irish miles before us, and an Irish car is the least comfortable of conveyances. I was never more pleased than when at last we met a man on horseback come from Woodford to meet us, who told us the end of our journey was close at hand. It was signalled to the Woodford people by the sudden lighting of bonfires made by the ready plan of setting matches to the furze bushes of a common, and presently the whole country round was in a blaze. Presently, too, we found ourselves escorted by an enthusiastic mob of country people each with a clod of turf dipped in paraffin, and carried on the point of a pitchfork, a simple and very effective kind of torch, and so in a flare of triumph we at last reached Woodford. It was astonishing that the light of it did not reach Loughrea, where a large body of police was stationed; but they slept peacefully through it all, and our proceedings that night were not interfered with. p. 337-9

    "The land war in Ireland: being a personal narrative of events, in continuation of 'A secret history of the English occupation of Egypt'" (1912)
    Wilfrid Scawen Blunt

    Source: Internet Archive


    Among the inferior notabilia of the battle of Clontarf, which lasted one, not three days, as the Latin writers quoted by Lanigan has it, we may mention that tradition says that Brian sailed under the shadow of the towers and steeples of the monasteries and churches of the Holy Island (Innis Cailthra) on Lough Dergh, as he proceeded up the Lake from Kincora, and that in the Norse, Broder, the slayer of Brian, is stated to have called all present to witness that it was he who killed him. [1]

    [1] The appearance of the fort of Kincora at this day indicates clearly that it was fortified, as its Danish name (Worsaee, quoting the Danish Sagas) Kincoraborg would also show. Keating, indeed, gives a pretty lengthened list of places of strength erected or improved by Brian, besides Kincora, within a few miles of which he repaired the round tower of Tomgraney, built a church at Inniskeltra, and erected another at Killaloe. Amongst other places we find Cahir, Cashel, Roscrea in Tipperary, and in the county of Limerick, Lough Gur, Bruree, Duntryleague and Knockany. p. 16

    "Limerick; its history and antiquities, ecclesiastical, civil, and military, from the earliest ages." (1866)
    Maurice Lenihan, Esq.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Clonrush and Iniscaltra were assigned to Galway before 1610 [1]. I have found no definite record of the transfer. It evidently took place gradually, as there is an Elizabethan map in the Hardiman collection [2], in which Iniscaltra is shown in Thomond, and Clonrush in Galway.

    They are understood to have been restored to Clare in 1898, under the Local Government Act. p. 121

    [1] Speede's map.

    [2] Table MSS. room, T.C.D.

    "The Churches of County Clare, and the Origin of the Ecclesiastical Divisions in that County" (1900)
    T. J. Westropp, M.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    The territories of the ancient Irish Families - The ancient Thomond.

    O'Duibhgin, O'Dugan, (or O'Deegan), chief of Muintir Conlochta, a district in the parish of Tomgraney, in the barony of Tullagh, county Clare.

    O'Grady, chief of Cíneal Dongally, a large territory comprising the present barony of Lower Tullagh, county Clare. The O'Gradys had also large possessions in the county Limerick; and, in modern times, the Right Hon. Standish O'Grady, Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland, was A.D. 1831, created Viscount Guillamore.

    MacConmara or MacNamara (literally a warrior of the sea) was chief of the territory of Clan Caisin, now the barony of Tullagh, in the county Clare. The Macnamaras were also sometimes styled chiefs of Clan Cuilean, which was the tribe name of the family; derived from Cuilean, one of their chiefs in the eighth century. This ancient family held the high and honourable office of hereditary marshals of Thomond.

    O'Moloney, were chiefs of Cuiltenan, now the parish of Kiltonanlea, in the barony of Tulla, county Clare.

    O'Kearney, as chiefs of Avon-Ui-Cearney or O'Kearney's river, a district about Six-Mile-Bridge, in the baronies of Tulla and Bunratty, county Clare.

    O'Halloran, chiefs of Fay Ui-Hallurain, a district between Tulla and Clare, in the county Clare. p. 804-5.

    "Irish pedigrees; or, The origin and stem of the Irish nation." (Vol. 1, 1915)
    John O'Hart

    Source: Internet Archive


    Macnamara's Rental in Vol. XV., Trans. R.I.A., p. 46 (Antiquities). 1390.

    "This is the sum of the Lordship of Macnamara - i.e. Maccon (circa 1390), mac Conmheadha mac Maccon (living 1333), mac Loghlan (executed 1313), mac Conmheadha more (died 1306); according to the testimony of the stewards of the Rodan family, and of the marshal of the country, and to the will of their father and grandfather out of Tuathmore; and the said stewards are Philip O'Rodan and Conor O'Rodan, descendants of the red steward." In the abstract we may state that the Tuathmore (most of the baronies of Bunratty) rents are 168 ounces,[1] and food to Macnamara, and 31½ ounces to his wife ("Lady's rent"). In Tuathnahavon (district near Sixmilebridge) 66 ounces (the stewards being the posterity of Mahon Finn O'Rodan). In O'Flinn (district near Kilkishen) 106 ounces and 1 groat to Macnamara, 1 ounce to his wife (stewards, the Lavelle family). In Glen (Glenomra) 126 ounces and food on the free land once a year. In Congalach (Ogonnelloe) 112 ounces; food between Christmas and Shrove on 6 townlands, and once a year on the free lands (stewards, the O'Rodans). O'Rongaile (Kilnoe and Killuran) 112 ounces; food between Christmas and Shrove on 7 townlands, and food once a year on the free lands. In Eactaoi (Feakle district) 140 ounces to Macnamara, 1 ounce to his wife, and food from Shrove to Easter. Total, Macnamara's rent, 819 ounces 1 groat, and food rights as above; "Lady's rent", 33½ ounces. p. 364

    [1] Silver, probably paid in cattle.

    "Notes on the Lesser Castles or Peel Towers of the county Clare." (Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Third Series. Volume V., 1899)
    T. J. Westropp, M.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Rural Deaneries and Tribal Divisions.

    The rural deaneries in the diocese of Killaloe are important as representing and showing the principal tribal divisions of the thirteenth century. These were, so far as we can combine the visitations of the seventeenth century:

    Ogashin, Ui gCaisin, the Macnamara's land - Quin, Tulla, Clooney, Kilraughtis, Kiltoolagh, Templemaley, Inchicronan, Kilmurrynegall and Doora.

    Omulled, Ui mBloid, the land of the O'Kennedys, &c., annexed by the Macnamaras after 1318 - Clonlea, Kilfinaghta, Kilteely (Kilseily), and Killokennedy, and Ogonilloe. Ui Ronghaile, the land of O'Shanaghan,[1] Kilnoe and Feakle, Killuran. Kinel Donghaile, the land of O'Grady, Moynoe, Clonrush, Iniscaltra, and Tomgraney. Ui Thoirdhealbhaigh, Killaloe and Dunassy (Kiltinanlea).

    In Eastern Clare, Tuathmor, the great possession of the Macnamaras, included the parishes of Inchicronan, Doora, Kilraghtis, Clooney, and Tulla, practically upper Bunratty with Tulla parish, corresponding to the rural deanery of Ogashin.

    Tuath o bFloin lay in Kilseily and Clonlea.

    Tuath Eachtaoi was Feakle.

    Ui Ronghaile lay in Kilnoe and Killuran, with a portion (Ross) of the southern edge of Feakle.

    Tuath na Hamhan was comprised in Kilfinaghta parish.[2]

    Ui Congalach exactly corresponded to its modern namesake Ogonnelloe parish.

    Cil o gCinnedi also covered the modern Killokennedy, with a portion of the later parishes of Kiltinanlea and O'Brien's Bridge, where they adjoined its eastern border. These with the addition of the O'Grady's land of Cinel Donghaile (which for obvious reasons does not appear in the rental) - Tomgraney, Moynoe, Iniscaltra, and Clonrush — still form the rural deanery of Omulled.

    [1] Macnamara's Rental, c. 1380. Trans. R.I.A., Vol. XV

    [2] Frost's "Ḧistory", p. 61, identifies this parish with Ui Cearnaigh. p. 118-120

    "The Churches of County Clare, and the origin of the Ecclesiastical Divisions in that County" (Volume VI, 1900)
    T. J. Westropp, M.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    As to the original form and size of the Diocese of Killaloe - per se - it may be influenced, as in other cases by civil boundaries. "The principality of Thomond, generally called the county of the Dalcassians, comprised the entire of the present county of Clare, the parishes of Inniscaltra and Clonrush, in the county of Galway, the entire of Ely O'Carroll, the baronies of Ikerrin, Upper and Lower Ormond, and somewhat more than the western half of the barony of Clanwilliam, in the county of Tipperary. The baronies of Owneybeg, Coonagh and Clanwilliam, and the eastern halves of the baronies of Smallco'y and Coshlea in the county of Limerick. Having thus defined, according to the best historical evidences, the extent and boundaries of Thomond; the county Clare, in Regno. Elizabeth, was properly called Thomond, or North Munster." So far the learned writer of the "Ordinance Survey of Clare". (Antiquities in R.I.A. 14, c.i. page 9) p. 8-9.

    "The Diocese of Killaloe from the Reformation to the close of the Eighteenth Century" (1878)
    Reverend Philip Dwyer. A. B.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Sunday the 7th [1691]: Brigadier Talbot's, Saxby's, and Fitz-Gerald's Regiments of Foot marched at three of the clock in the morning. First to Tomgraney, five miles, a little ruined town, within half a mile of which is Scarriff, neither of them worth the noting but for the iron mills there formerly, now gone to decay. The road is all mountain with a wood along the Shannon. Hence we marched to Graig or as the English call it Woodford, eight miles over an uncouth barbarous mountain full of bogs and covered only with wild sedge, fern, and heath, without one house, cottage or so much as a living creature of any sort to be seen. In winter this way is impassable when the season is wet, but in a dry summer good, yet at best boggy in some places. The miles are long and the day was very hot without the least breath of wind, tiresome to the soldiers and to me.

    At Woodford there is an iron work in the bottom upon a small river that falls into the Shannon: the town stands on the hill above it.

    The bridge at Tomgraney joins, or rather the river that runs under it parts, the county of Clare from that of Galway, the same being also the bounds of the provinces of Munster and Connaught. p.201.

    "The journal of John Stevens, containing a brief account of the war in Ireland, 1689-1691" (1912)
    Robert Henry Murray, 1874 ed.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Thomond, or the county of Clare, was formerly joined to Munster, but has been annexed to Connaught. On the east and south sides, it is parted by the Shannon from Tipperary, Limerick and Kerry in Munster; on the north it is bounded by the county of Gallway; and on the west by the Atlantic ocean. It is about fifty-five miles in length, and thirty-eight in breath; and is supposed to contain ten thousand houses. It is divided into nine baronies, in which are two market towns, and but one borough, which is that of Ennis; it therefore sends but four members to parliament.

    It is a hilly, irregular country, but not deficient in good pastures, which produce the best horses in Ireland. The soil also bears corn and rape.

    Killalo... stands on the Shannon, on the borders of Tipperary, eighteen miles from Ennis, and ten to the north east of Limerick. It is the See of a Bishop, and was once a very considerable place; but is at present decayed. There is here a cataract in the Shannon, which stops vessels from going up. p. 612

    "A General Description of the World, containing; A Particular and Circumstantial Account of all the Countries, Kingdoms, and States of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. Their Situation, Climate, Mountains, Seas, Rivers, Lakes, &c. The Religion, Manners, Customs, Manufactures, Trade, and Buildings of the Inhabitants. With The Birds, Beasts, Reptiles, Insects, the various Vegetables, and Minerals, found in different Regions." (Vol. II, 1765)

    Source: Internet Archive


    Clare, anciently called Thomond, or North Munster, one of the six counties of the Province of Munster, was annexed to the Province of Connaught by Queen Elizabeth, and restored to Munster in 1602. p. 236

    Clare is a mountainous county inland, the elevations comprising a surface of at least 150 miles between the Shannon and the county of Galway. In this direction are the Slievebaughta Mountains, from 2000 to upwards of 2500 feet in height, and extending into Galway. In this range are the connected lakes of Lough Teroig on the Galway boundary, Lough Graney, and Lough O'Grady, the last mentioned lying between Lough Graney and the Lough Derg expansion of the Shannon. These lakes discharge themselves from Lough O'Grady by the Scariff river, which enters a capacious bay of Lough Derg at the village and creek of Scariff. A less elevated mountainous group extends from Scariff, southward of the Slieve-baughta Mountains to Bunratty, and in this quarter the Ougarnee river conveys the waters of Loughs Breedy, Doon, Cloonlea, and numerous other lakes to the Shannon. The Blackwater, which enters the Shannon above Limerick, drains the waters of the eastern part of this district of the county. p. 237

    The roads throughout the county were long the worst probably in Ireland, but are now annually in progress of improvement. A canal was suggested from Scariff by Lough Graney, through the valley of the Slieve-baughta Mountains to the Bay of Galway. p. 238

    "Gazetteer of Ireland, containing the latest information from the most authentic sources" (1842)
    John Parker Lawson, M. A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    To go to Thomond[1] was difficult for me,
    A day-dinner they are never wont to take;
    One supper and that scantily given.
    And the want of obsonium[2] left them blind.

    I traversed from the Ford to the Leap,[3]
    Thomond and Clann-Choileain;[4]
    But a living wight did not bestow on me.
    The fourth of a groat in copper! p. 79

    [1] Thomond (Thuadh Mhumhain), i.e. North Munster. Before the English Invasion Thomond was a very extensive territory; but in the Bard Ruadh's time it was considered to be coextensive with the present County of Clare.

    [2] Obsonium, Annlann. The English langnage has no word to express what Annlann means, i.e. anything taken with bread. How the want of it causes blindness has not been yet explained, but dry bread without salt is not sufficient to sustain life; and prisoners deprived of obsonium have remarked that, the sight was the first sense they felt affected.

    [3] From the Ford to the Leap. i.e., O Ath go leim. from Ath-na-Borumha now Ballina on the east side of the Shannon at Killaloe, to Leim Chonchulainn, i.e., Cuchullin's Leap, now corruptly Loop-head, the south-west extremity of the County of Clare. Mr. Brennan, in his Irish poem describing the Shannon, asks, "if the Irish language were lost, what philologist could ever discover that Loop-head was a translation of Ceann-Leime?"

    [4] Clann Choileain, i.e., the race of Coilean, son of Artghal, eighth in descent from Cas, the ancestor of the Dal-g-Cais of Thomond. This became the tribe-name of the Mac Namaras (fabled by Spenser and others to be descended from the Mortimers of England), whose country was originally co-extensive with the Deanery of Ogashin in the diocese of Killaloe, but in the Bard Ruadh's time, Clann-Choilean comprised nearly all the region extending from the river Fergus to the Shannon.

    "The Tribes of Ireland: A Satire by Aenghus O'Daly; with poetical translation by the late James Clarence Mangan; together with an historical account of the family of O'Daly; and an introduction to the history of Satire in Ireland" (1852)
    John O'Donovan, LLD., M.R.I.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    "The Midnight Meeting" at Woodford, in the Clanricarde country, created an amount of enthusiasm in Ireland, and even Britain, and of chagrin in Dublin Castle, of which it would not be easy now to give any notion. It was the first time the device was tried, and it was tried with conspicuous success. The Dublin Castle people who had "proclaimed" the tenants' meeting concentrated all their force of cavalry and police at the neighbouring towns of Ballinasloe and Loughrea, through one or the other of which I was expected to approach. To the bemusement of all their plans, we swooped down from the county Clare, over the shoulder of Slieve Aughty; as our vedettes signalled our approach, bonfires were set alight until the worthy Englishmen accompanying us began to apprehend they had stumbled into a country afire with red rebellion; in presence of an enormous midnight gathering, amidst which the handful of policemen left in the village tossed like sheep caught in a torrent, I burned the Lord Lieutenant's Proclamation, with some remarks appropriate to the auto-da-fe; and when the Chief Secretary's horse and foot marched in the next day from every part of the compass except the right one, it was to be received with shouts of Homeric laughter more insupportable than if they were volleys of musketry. Our way of meeting systematic savage repression was systematically to defy it, all the time and everywhere. p. 336-7

    "Evening Memories" (1920)
    William O'Brien

    Source: Internet Archive


    As we proceed, the Arra Mts. rise on the rt., on which also are Derry Castle, and the Church and ruins of the fortress of Castlelough. On the 1. are Tinarana Church, and beyond the Slieve Bernagh Mts. rise between Killaloe and Scariff; the result is a pretty mountain valley, through which flows the river Graney, rising in a considerable tarn called Lough Graney, and, when near Scariff, passing through Lough O'Grady, whence it emerges as the Scariff River. Advantage has been taken of this valley to form a line of road to the little town of Tulla. The Lough widens between Aughinish Point and Castlelough, and opens on the 1. into Scariff Bay, which contains the most beautiful part of its scenery.

    At the head of the bay is Scariff, a charmingly situated little town, near the junction of 2 important roads: 1. From Woodford and Mountshannon to Killaloe; 2. From Ennis and Tulla.

    On the northern shore is the little village of Mountshannon (8 m.). nestling at the foot of Knockeven, 1242 ft., and adjoining the village, are the prettily wooded grounds of Woodpark. This is an excellent spot for the lake fishing and one of the best during the dapping season. The autumn pike fishing is also good, and nice accommodation with boats is to be had at the Hotel. The antiquary should land at Mountshannon for the purpose of visiting Iniscaltra, or Holy Island (Inis-Cealtra, the Island burying-place), so remarkable for its very interesting Churches and Round Tower. In the 7th cent. St. Caimin visited it, and established a monastery which became famed for its sanctity and learning, St. Caimin himself having written a commentary on the Psalms. p. 522

    Opposite the Island is Youghal Bay, and here the Lough is widest. it again greatly narrows and on the shores of the little bay at Dromineer. into which the Nenagh River falls, are the ruins of Dromineer Castle and Shannonvale. This is now an important landing-place for Nenagh (4½m.) and district. On the opposite shore are Meelick House and the harbour of Williamstown, famous as an angling resort.

    On 1., situated at the foot of one of the wooded spurs of Slieveanore. is the little town of Woodford (4 m. from the lake), from whence a small river runs into the Shannon at Rossmore. Iron-ore was at one time extensively worked in this neighbourhood: and its very frequent concomitant, a chalybeate well, used to attract a good many people. Near it is "Saunders Fort", famous in Land League days for its 10 days' siege by military and police. p. 523

    "Handbook for Travellers in Ireland" (Seventh Edition, 1906)
    Revised and Edited by John Cooke, M.A. Trin. Coll., Dub.

    Source: Internet Archive


    We now come to the Scariff Union, partly in Clare and partly in Galway. The population is 53,563, the valuation 44,609/-, the acreage 168,048. Only 23,461 acres were, in October 1847, under crops, of which 6,699 were in flax, meadow, and clover, leaving 16,762 for food consumable by man. The horses and mules, in 1847, were 3,146; the cattle, 15,833.

    Captain Hart to the Commissioners, December 11, 1847. - 'The state of things here is difficult to be dealt with, owing to a large admixture of turbulent, able-bodied, single men, and others not in distressed circumstances, who evidently entertain the notion that it needs but a due exhibition of physical force to induce an indiscriminate issue of outdoor relief, seeing that the workhouse, which was constructed for 600, now contains nearly 800 inmates.

    'On Tuesday last, I had to seize a turbulent fellow (a single man), who had forced his way with others into the house; and on my having his name registered, as a warning to others, and ordering that no relief should ever be given to him except inside the house, he insolently replied, that he would "rob and steal sooner than come into the work house" and that "all the people had a right to get the outdoor relief".

    'I should not have deemed such matters as these worthy of mention, were it not that they abundantly exemplify what must inevitably be the demoralising effects of outdoor relief to ablebodied men, should such an expedient, unhappily, ever have to be resorted to - a crisis which I can view in no other light than as an unmixed and dire calamity, which will speedily extinguish, in the breasts of its recipients, every principle of self-reliance, and swallow up the property of the country; for, judging from past experience, it is utterly futile to expect that any adequate check can be interposed, especially at this early stage of the administration of the new laws for the relief of the poor, to prevent an almost indiscriminate issue of relief; as, when once it is believed that the destitution has extended beyond the power of being met by local taxation, every barrier to abuse will, I fear, be at once levelled, and the same general rush made for the "Government relief" as took place under the system of relief by public works, and subsequently by the issue of rations, when the detection of the most shameless imposition was usually met by the reply, that "one man had as good a right as another to get a share of the Government relief".' [1] p. 232-3.

    [1] Papers relating to the Unions and Workhouses in Ireland, Fifth Series, p. 447.

    "Journals, conversations and essays relating to Ireland" (Vol I, 1869)
    Nassau William Senior

    Source: Internet Archive


    For about twenty miles above Killaloe, the Shannon forms itself into a lake, in some places from two to three miles broad. The ground rising gradually from its banks gives a beautiful variety to the country all around. p.321

    There are some excellent tracts of land betwixt Mount Shannon and Woodford, seemingly in the same state in which it has ever been since the days of Noah. These, and the like, with tolerable cultivation, might be made to support thousands of families; the grain not necessary for the new settlers, could easily be shipped off by the canals connected by the river Shannon, either to Limerick or Dublin, where it would be sure to find a ready market. p.324

    Near Woodford, some poor people are settling in the hills and bogs; but their cabins and little farms are too often taken from them, in the course of a few years, by middlemen and rich monopolizers.

    The justices of the peace, in this part of the country, generally appoint people to go and search where they suspect distilling to be carried on. Hence whiskey and distilling-utensils are seized here; not by the excise and revenue officers, as in Britain, but by those appointed by the justices, and not improperly called still-hunters. Though a lucrative, this is by no means a pleasant business; for, not many years ago, a person having taken and destroyed many of their distilling-utensils, more than half a dozen of them, considering themselves as robbed, and him as a robber; followed him, and knocked out his brains. There is a heap of stones near Woodford, on the spot where this happened, and many, as they pass, throw a stone against it to this day. A country-man, who overtook me near it, carrying a great stone, said he was surprised, as I was a stranger, that I did not throw a stone at it; to contribute my mite in perpetuating a deed which had cleared the country of their greatest scourge and oppressor. He told me, that only one poor old man was hung for the deed; though half a dozen were proved to have been concerned in it; and that this man on the scaffold, in his address to the multitude, who considered him as innocent, among other things advised them who had come to see him hung, to attend to what fortune-tellers say; for that one of these, more than forty years before, had told him that he would be hanged. p.325-6.

    "Tour through Ireland; particularly the interior & least known parts." (Vol I, 1813)
    Rev. James Hall, A.M.

    Source: Internet Archive


    In the month of July, 1881, negotiations took place for the purchase from Richard Pigott of the "Shamrock", the "Flag of Ireland", and "Irishman" newspapers, which had been organs of the Fenian party.

    The editor of these two papers (the "Irishman" and "United Ireland") was Mr. William O'Brien, M.P., who tells us that he was never a Fenian, but that he was in thorough sympathy with Fenians, and that he considers it one of the proudest things in his life that the Fenians trusted him without the sanction of an oath. The first number of "United Ireland" appeared early in August, 1881. It was preceded by a farewell notice in the "Flag of Ireland", stating that the new paper would remain "anchored for ever in the faith of an indestructible Irish nation". [Report, p.65]. p.74

    We find that the numbers of "United Ireland", from its commencement on 13th August, 1881, down to the middle of February, 1882, almost invariably contained a column entitled: "The Land War", or "The Campaign", or "The Spirit of the Country", or "Incidents of the Campaign". In these columns there were inserted short narratives of various outrages, which were thus treated as incidental to the land agitation. p.74

    "Captain Moonlight.
    In the town of Scariff notices signed 'Captain Moonlight', containing threats against any person that would dare speak to the police or supply them with necessaries have been posted." p.77

    "A verbatim copy of the Parnell Commission report: with complete index and notes" (1890)

    Source: Internet Archive


    The union of Scariff, which includes parts of the baronies of Upper and Lower Tulla in the county of Clare, and the barony of Leitrim in the county of Galway, was one of those that obtained an unenviable notoriety in the famine years. It ranked next to Skibbereen in the extent and intensity of the distress which then prevailed, and which reduced the entire population to pauperism; for at one time there were no fewer than 21,000 persons receiving outdoor relief, besides 4,000 who were inmates of the workhouse. The unparalleled nature of that calamity had the effect of diminishing the population by death and emigration, and, taking the whole of the union, it is not too much to say that the number of its inhabitants has decreased one third since the year 1845. For instance, the parish of Iniscalthra, which is partly situated in both counties, contained in 1841, 449 families, numbering 2,198 persons; in 1845, the numbers were 460 families, and 2,546 persons; in 1851, 301 families, and 1,533 persons; in 1854, 234 families, and 1,264 persons; and in 1857, 226 families, numbering 1,181 individuals - thus showing a diminution in twelve years of 1,365 persons, arising chiefly from emigration; for I understand that in this district of the country there were no evictions. p. 21

    "The West of Ireland: its Existing Condition and Prospects" (1862)
    Henry Coulter

    Source: Internet Archive


    "Dear Sir: I have been for the last ten days through the Counties of Limerick, Galway, Clare, and across thence to the King's County... All attempts to depict the existing state of the misery of the masses beyond the Shannon must come utterly short of the truth. All that tract of country from Killaloe to Portumna, on the Galway side of the Shannon, is lying waste and uncultivated. About three out of four of the miserable huts are unroofed. Some of the former inmates are dead, some in the union, and some few huddled together in one or two of the huts still existing. The men generally have perished." - Evening Packet. p. 273-4

    "Ireland, as I saw it: the character, condition and prospects of the people" (1852)
    WM. S Balch

    Source: Internet Archive


    Since the late Dr. Moore made the beautiful lake botanically famous by the discovery on its north-west margin of the Willow-leaved Inula (Inulla salicina), rarest of Irish plants, and mysteriously absent from the far richer flora of Great Britain, many a botanist, native and British, has visited Lough Derg, but none has undertaken so much as a preliminary survey of its shores. So having a week's leisure on my hands towards the end of July last it occurred to me that it might be very pleasantly spent in a botanical cruise down the lake from Portumna to Killaloe. With a shore-line of fully 90 miles in length it was obviously hopeless to aim at putting together in so short a time a complete list of even the summer plants. But, by a judicious selection of centres along both shores, the western or Galway shore, and the eastern or Tipperary shore, one might reasonably expect to gain, at all events, a just idea of the characteristics of the flora. p. 189-90.

    Roughly speaking, the northern two-thirds of the Lough Derg shores are calcareous, the southern third non-calcareous, and the change of flora with change of rock was very strikingly shown on touching at Freagh wood when running west from Dromineer to Mount Shannon. Five minutes on the rough grits here gave Cotyledon Umbilicus, Galium saxatile, Pyrus Aucuparia, Vaccinium Myrtillus, Digitalis purpurea, Scilla nutans, Luzula maxima, and Lastraea dilatata, not one of which had turned up in all the five days spent on the limestone farther north. And similar results had been arrived at in the hour spent on the Woodford bogs two days before when sailing down from Portumna. Here on the pure peat Gnaphalium uliginosum, Senecio sylvaticus, Calluna vulgaris, Erica Tetralix, Rumex Acetosella, Juncus supinus, and Lomaria Spicant immediately presented themselves when one passed from the limestone to the over-lying peat. p. 191-2

    "On The Flora of The Shores of Lough Derg" (The Irish Naturalist, Vol. VI, 1897)
    Nathaniel Colgan, M.R.I.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Flora of Lough Derg
    The following notes as to some of the rarer species which I observed in the neighbourhood of Lough Derg in June and July, 1895, may perhaps be of interest.

    Thalictrum collinum - A few plants among rocks near mouth of Rossmore river (Co. Galway).
    Thalictrum flavum - Abundant on banks of Borrisokane river (Co. Tipperary).
    Aquilegia vulgaris - Frequent in stony places throughout the district.
    Erysimum cheiranthoides - One plant at Brocka (Co. Tipperary).
    Geranium sanguineum - Plentiful among rocks at Drominagh (Co. Tipperary).
    Galium boreale - Abundant at Brocka.
    Inula salicina - A fine clump of this striking plant found on rocky shore of Lough Derg at Curraghmore, seen also on Brynas Island, both on Tipperary shore of Lough.
    Carduus pratensis - Abundant in bogs.
    Teucrium scordium - In profusion among rocks on shore of Rossmore river, and also at Drominagh.
    Ophrys apifera - Frequent in limestone pastures at Borrisokane.
    Epipactis palustris - Moderately abundant in a rocky meadow at Bellevue, on the Tipperary side of Lough.
    Habenaria conopsea - Frequent at Brocka.
    Sisyrinchium angustifolium - Growing freely on rocky shore at the mouth of Rossmore river.

    The district is a most interesting one to a botanist, as it yields some species not found elsewhere in the United Kingdom, and appears to be the only European habitat of the beautiful Sisyrinchium angustifolium. p. 269 

    "The Irish Naturalist" (Vol V, 1896)
    C. J. Lilly, Larne

    Source: Internet Archive


    To the westward of the Shannon, at Milltown, near Tulla, Co. Clare, a mine was worked in ancient times. Here there is native silver; the oaken shovels and large iron picks found suggesting that the workings were not as old as some of the others. At Carhoon, near Tynagh, Co. Galway, there are the relics of an ancient mine of which the traditions are extinct. p. 6

    Iron ore in the Ordovician rocks was extensively raised in Glendree, westward of Feakle, also at Ballymahon and Bealkelly, near Tomgraney. East of Feakle, at the hamlet now called Furnace, are the remains of considerable works, apparently principally for smelting purposes; while the iron raised at the mines near Tomgraney is said to have been sent by boat, to be smelted and milled at the different furnaces and works between Mount Shannon, Clonrush, and Woodford, west of Lough Derg, Co. Galway. According to the records, three classes of ore appear to have been in use for mixing at the furnaces, and these, from Gerrard Boate's descriptions, were evidently the bog-iron-ore, the ore from the Ordovician rocks, and the clay-iron stone from the south of the county and the Co. Limerick. These furnaces and mills were at work until the woods were exhausted... p. 75-6

    At intervals between 1620 to 1750 iron was extensively smelted and milled in different places along Lough Derg, the last furnace alight being that of Woodford, belonging to the Burkes of Marble Hill. In these furnaces the bog-iron-ore was in part used; but it was mixed with clay-iron-stone from counties Limerick and Clare, and limonite from Tomgraney, Co. Clare, brought up the Shannon in boats; the furnace and mills being erected hereabouts, on account of the vast forests in the neighbouring hills. p. 85-6

    Ordovician occur in the mountain groups of Slieve Aughta and Bernagh. In these are grits and sandstones, but not of much account, except for rough work. There is also a green rock, full of little round bits of quartz, from the size of shot to that of peas, locally called "Porphyry". It is a massive stone, good for heavy work, but rises in unsightly blocks. p. 237

    "Irish Metal Mining" (Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland, 1889)
    G. H. Kinahan, M.E.I.A., Etc.

    Source: Internet Archive


    The southern boundary of the plain is easier to describe than the northern. There are four well-defined groups of mountains, separated by three depressions. East of the Ennis depression is Slieve Aughty, which has an extreme height a little over 1,300 feet. East of this range, the valley of the Shannon intervenes, with Lough Derg occupying the depression. From near Killaloe at the foot of the lake a range of hills extends north-east, broken by a pass in which the town of Roscrea is situated. In this range, Keeper Hill in the south-west reaches 2,280 feet, while the Slieve Bloom Mountains at the other extremity, beyond the pass of Roscrea, reach a height of 1,730 feet. We now reach the depression in which Maryborough stands, east of which is a cluster of hills, with an extreme height of 1,100 feet, in the south of which is Castlecomer with its coalfield. p.111

    "A Geography of Ireland" (1911)
    O. J. R. Howarth

    Source: Internet Archive


    There was little cultivation in that region. The steeply sloping fields, divided from each other by an interminable succession of low stone walls, were covered, some thickly, some sparsely, with furze bushes which in their season made the whole hillside a blaze of golden colour. Everywhere there remained the evidence of bygone industry; the very walls were built of stones picked off the tillage fields, which now grew nothing but poor mossy grass, and the memory of those days was kept alive by the permanent undulations which remained in the land, telling their tale of potato drills sown in '47 and left undug by the famine-stricken population. They had remained untouched since that ill-fated autumn. Time had levelled those sterile ridges somewhat, and nature had hidden them with a covering of moss and grass. But with a low sun shining in the west every bygone drill and ridge seemed to rise out of the ground once more as the horizontal rays of the sun threw each into relief, its long, dark shadow beside it.

    The fields were too steep to be sodden with the wet, and they climbed upwards until they came to a high bank which for the moment stopped their progress. Turning round they hardly knew which way to look. To the east the great banks of clouds from which the downpour had been falling during the day hung like a soft lavender pall low down on the mountains beyond the river. A long, blue-green streak of sky cut the dense greyness in half, and gave to the little lakes below them and to the water of the river a colour of grey lavender a shade more dusky than the masses of cloud beyond. Alban's ivy-covered ruin stood out, a small but clearly defined outline on the edge of Glenowan bog. And in the west the setting sun drew a wonderful rose-pink light upon the broken clouds, and made a striking contrast to the sombre splendour of the eastern sky.

    "My God", exclaimed Con, "that's glorious. We don't half realize the beauty of the place we live in." p. 132-3.

    "The Gael" (1920 [1919])
    Edward MacLysaght

    Source: Internet Archive


    At Whitsuntide last, I visited the famous island in Scariff Bay, called Holy Island. On it stands the remains of some ancient buildings much revered for their antiquity. There are many legendary tales told there about the holiness of the place, and the miracles which have been performed in it. They tell you "churches were all built in one night, and that the tower would have been built up to heaven but some woman unfortunately said, how high do you intend to build this?" At this place St. Patrick stopped the first night he came to bless Ireland, and the Virgin Mary came down to meet him in this abode of bliss. Here, the sound of the Vesper bell is heard, which sounds in heaven every seven years.

    The practical tendency of this credulity is very bad - it leads to the worst consequences. For as regularly as the season of Whitsuntide comes, here you find a concourse of people assembled to perform penance. They make 280 rounds, the circumference of some being a mile, others half a mile, till they are gradually diminished to a circuit of the church of St. Mary's. All of them are considered trifling in comparison to the last, for this is performed on the naked knees through a heap of rugged stones; the females tuck up their clothes, and expose their persons in the most indelicate manner. Men of the most dissolute morals go to witness this part of the exhibition, but none can witness the finale without feelings of the greatest horror being excited; when it comes to this, all must (without assistance) descend on the naked knees, a step nearly a foot in depth. This is a most painful operation. The writhing postures, the intense agonies, and the lacerated knees of the votaries are most distressing to the spectators. After the descent they must go on their bleeding knees through the rough stones in the church to the east end, when in a posture of most profound reverence, they kiss a particular stone. p. 51-2

    "The Holy Wells of Ireland" (1840)
    Philip Dixon

    Source: Internet Archive


    To Mountshannon by Road. — This is a delightful drive, and a good road for cyclists. It keeps close to the shore the greater portion of the way with good views of the lake. Opposite Ballyvally Ho., 1 m. N. on the a particularly fine Fort, "Beal Boru", over 200 yds. in external circumference and about 40 ft. internal diameter. It forms a great circumvallation, thickly planted with trees, and is about 20 ft. high in places, the lower being part faced with stone for several feet. It is surrounded by a fosse and has a stone entrance on the N. side. Passing Tinarana Ho. on the l. is a Monument to one of the Purdon family. The road now strikes inland and soon turning W. reaches Tomgraney (9 m.) with a Castle close to the roadside.

    Both Tomgraney aud Bodyke (3 m. W.) were rendered notable for evictions during the days of the "Plan of Campaign". Passing 10 m. Scariff, at the head of the island-dotted bay, and Woodpark, where the conifers are particularly fine, Mountshannon (14 m.) is reached. p. 521

    The stony shores of Lough Derg are the home of Inula salicina, found nowhere else in Britain; and Chara tomentose grows abundantly in the waters of this lake and Lough Ree, while Lathyrus palustris, Teucrium , and other rare plants abound on these shores. p. 522

    Clare has a very diversified surface: in the N.E. is the fine group of the Slieve Aughty Mountains; a great plain covers the centre of the county, and from this to the Atlantic the surface consists of high grounds, either rocky and mountainous, or of low moorish hills. p. 525

    "Handbook for Travellers in Ireland" (Seventh Edition, 1906)
    Revised and Edited by John Cooke, M.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    In 1877 a retainer of the Morelands of Raheen on Lough Derg, and an old fisherman, on my first visit to Iniscaltra (Holy Island) in that great lake, told me of the Danes. No one would injure the fences at the churches "for the Danes made them"; the people were less afraid to injure the churches themselves, for "the saints are in heaven and will not come back, but who knows where the Danes are?" "They put the forts to mark their estates, and maybe they'll come back to claim them." "They killed all the clergy in the churches and the (round) tower, and burned them (the churches) all." The Danes were reputed to have tails, as I heard widely about 1870. The old divisions on the hills were made by the Danes to mark out their heather meadows.

    Such appear to be all the impressions that remain, upon the mind of the folk a thousand years later, of the two terrible half-centuries 810-50 and 900-70.

    So far I can write with little hesitation, but in the legends of the great deliverer Brian, son of Cennedigh, the collector of folklore is in constant danger of deception. How far any of the legends are really old and independent of books, and how far apparently independent versions were derived from books in the early years of the last century, I cannot pretend to decide. Now the corruption is unquestionable; the popular press and many excellent little books, besides tourists and others who make enquiries not always judicious and even supply information directly, have in the last ten years overlaid nearly all the folk-tales. p. 365-6.

    "County Clare Folk Tales and Myths" (Part III, in Folklore Vol XXIV, 1913)
    Thos. J. Westropp

    Source: Internet Archive


    Some six miles above the town of Killaloe, the Shannon expands into a spacious lake, now known as Lough Derg, but anciently "Loch Deirgheirt". It is a fine sheet of water, ten miles in length and three in its greatest breadth, and studded with many pretty islets. Lying towards the north shore, and at the entrance of that portion of the lake known as the bay of Scarriff, is one of these islets, containing, according to the Ordnance Survey, about forty-five acres of rich grass land, which rises gently from the shore to the centre.

    This is the island of Inishcaltra, commonly called, in the neighbouring country, Holy Island, and the Seven Churches. The most ancient form of the name is Inis-Cealtra, the etymology of which is obvious enough from Inis, an island; Ceall, a church, a cell, a place of retirement; and Tra, a strand; that is, "the island of the churches, or cells on the strand", as the group of ecclesiastical ruins I am about to describe are situated on the eastern shore of the islet. The name has been differently spelled by writers: as Inniskeltair, by Archdall ("Monasticon Hibernicum"); Keltra, by Colgan ("Acta Sanct."); but this is evidently carelessness. It formerly formed a portion of the principality of the O'Gradys, in Thomond, co. Clare, but it is now included, along with a considerable portion of the parish on the mainland, to which it gives name, in the barony of Leitrim and county of Galway; it forms a portion of the estate of Woodpark, the property and seat of Phillip Reade, Esq., and is easily accessible from that gentleman's boat-house, on the mainland. p. 7

    "Inishcaltra and its Remains" (The Gentleman's Magazine, 1866)
    Richard R. Brash, Archt., M.R.I.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    In front of the little bay of Skariff, which lies at the upper extremity of Loughderg (one of the many lake-like expansions of the Shannon) is a group of three small islets the principal of which, Iniscealtra, or Holy Island, contains twenty acres. It has been famous from very early ages for its reputed sanctity: it possesses structures belonging to the Pagan as well as Christian periods; a round tower and seven small churches, or rather cells or oratories. The round tower is about seventy feet high, and in good preservation. The principal church is called Teampol Camin, or the Chapel of Saint Camin, because that saint was either the founder, or patron. From the little delivered to us by the old hagiologists, we collect that Camin flourished in the first half of the seventh century; that he was of the princely house of Hy Kinselagh (in Leinster), and half-brother of Guare, the generous King of Connaught. Betaking himself to the seclusion of Iniscealtra, he there led a life of contemplation and great austerity, the fame of which attracted to its shores numbers desirous of imitating his virtues and receiving instruction. The concourse of these disciples became at length so great, that the holy man was compelled to found a place for their reception and shelter, and thus originated a monastery, which in after times enjoyed a far-spread reputation, and was deemed one of the asylums of Ireland. Camin died somewhat about the year 658. [1] p. 193-4.

    [1]. That Camin was not, however, the first Christian ecclesiastic who dwelt in Cealtra, we have the authority of the venerable Bede, who informs us that, in 548, there was a great mortality in Ireland, and that, amongst others, there died St. Columba of Inis Kealtra. We further learn from Colgan, that Stellanus, Abbot of Inis Kealtra, flourished about 650, and died 24th of May; this would indicate an establishment distinct from that of Camin. The latter, probably, was bishop of this island, with the jurisdiction belonging to that office, distinct from that of the abbacy. Such a division of functions did certainly exist there, for we have, at 951, the death of Dermot MacCahir, bishop of Inis Kealtra. About the year 660, Coelin, a monk of Inis Kealtra, wrote a metrical life of St. Brigid. p. 339-40

    "Ireland, its Scenery, Character and History" (Vol. 6, 1911)
    Mr. & Mrs. S.C. Hall

    Source: Internet Archive


    Lough Derg is the lower of the two great lake-like expansions of the Shannon, the other, Lough Ree, lying further up the river. Save at its southern end, where the lake is embosomed in hills of Silurian slate, the winding shores are formed of low-lying limestones, and the numerous islands are composed of the same rock. Botanical interest centres on the low, uncultivated islets and reefs, and on the sloping, stony shores. Here a peculiar flora is developed, as the following list of abundant plants will show:

    Rhamnus catharticus
    Hypericum perforatum
    Geranium sanguineum
    Rubus cæsius
    Rosa spinosissima
    Parnassia palustris
    Viburnum Opulus
    Galium boreale
    Eupatorium cannabinum    
    Solidago Virgaurea
    Antennaria dioica
    Carlina vulgaris
    Cnicus pratensis
    Hieracium umbellatum
    Lysimachia vulgaris
    Samolus Valerandi
    Erythraea Centaureum
    Chlora perfoliata
    Gentiana Amarella
    Lycopus europæus
    Teucrium Scordium
    Juniperus communis
    Schcenus nigricans
    Sesleria coerulea
    Selaginella selaginoides

    The rarest plant of the lake shores is Inula salicina, which occurs in many places. Although this species ranges widely in Europe and Asia, it is unknown elsewhere in the British Isles. And other rare plants are the American Sisyrinchium angustifolium, which grow in several places, being abundant along the Woodford river. p. 88-90

    "The Provinces of Ireland: Munster" (1921)
    Edited by George Fletcher, F.G.S., M.R.I.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Clare is on one side of it, and county Galway on the other. On the Clare side, the nearer banks are finely cultivated and well wooded; and more than one ruined castle is seen rising from the water's edge. One of these castles was some time ago held in forcible possession by illicit distillers, against all the civil force that attempted, from time to time, to dislodge them; and it was at length found necessary to batter down the sheltering walls with canon ball. On the Galway side, the scenery is diversified by several fine country seats, and by the prettily situated village called Mount Shannon. Several islands also adorn this reach; particularly Holy Island, covered with beautiful green pasturage, on which there is an extensive grazing; and where also is one of the ancient round towers, besides some lesser and more imperfect ruins. The other islands are no way remarkable. With the exception of Bushy island, which is what it professes to be, they are destitute of wood. p. 325

    "Ireland in 1834: A Journey Throughout Ireland during the Spring, Summer and Autumn of 1834" (Vol. I, 1835)
    Henry D Inglis

    Source: Internet Archive


    The day was at its height, and a bright sun and dead calm had set all to rest; so we took advantage of the idle hour, and steered for the opposite coast, where, being sheltered by the Galway mountains from the westerly winds which prevail in Ireland, and the natural flies being at the same time wafted off the shore, the fish are most abundant. p.95

    Standing out from the bay of Scariff lay Holy Island, clothed in the hoary garb of centuries, the varied ruins of its seven churches presenting the picturesque in one of its most attractive forms. It was in ages past a place of considerable importance as a monastic and literary institution, and is still held in high estimation by the peasantry. Penances are still performed here; and from the particular tenacity with which the lowest cling to their old usages and localities, funerals here are frequent: these are of course managed by means of boats - the corpse being towed in one by itself - as from the strange inconsistency, which it would seem forms a part of the character of these certainly singular people, their treatment of their own dead (however regardless of taking life they unfortunately are) is romantic, nay frantically tender. p.96

    ...a four o'clock May sun was shedding its radiance on the purple heath of the Galway mountains, which was as it were thrown back and reflected on the old ruins. The wind had totally lulled, and there was an utter stillness around... It seemed as if the old Sanctuary were enjoying a day-dream of its pristine and peaceful glories in the repose of nature; for though the air elsewhere had been teeming with them, even the pleasant sounds of bird and bee were here wanting. It was solitude the most uninterrupted, but divested of all its terrors. p.97

    "A Quartogenarian" (1833)
    Sporting Magazine, Vol. VII, Second Series

    Source: Internet Archive


    The surrounding country was for a mile or two wooded and undulating, with here and there cottages, looking picturesque enough, but many of which to my knowledge were squalid and wretched habitations. In the distance rose hills covered with purple heather, where, before Land League hunts came into vogue, grouse abounded. These moorland summits were our barometer when the wind was north-westerly, for a collection of cloud around them was a sure sign of the sharp squall which would shortly come dashing down on to the lake. p. 44

    Looking up the lake we could see on Holy Island an elevated round tower, one of the finest specimens of its kind remaining. Under its shadow are the ruins of an old monastic establishment and a little graveyard, which is still used. To be buried there is considered by the superstitious peasantry a long step towards eternal happiness, and at the time we were cruising about the lake there was a man living on its shores, who having had a limb taken off in an operation had it buried on Holy Island in advance of his body, "for", said he, "what would I do in Paradise wid only one arm?"

    The island, with which we were fated to become better acquainted the following day, is of no great extent, but the soil, enriched by the interments of centuries, grows a grass which fattens cattle with such rapidity that the farmers willingly give as high rent for it as for any grazing land in Ireland. In the spring time the white narcissus blooms freely all over it, and here and there one comes upon clumps of golden daffodils. Whether in consequence of its profitable pasture, lovely spring flowers, ancient monuments, or passport to Paradise, I cannot say, but for some reason or another the peasants have made up their minds that it is inhabited by the "good people", as they term the fairies. p. 157-8.

    "Wild Sports in Ireland" (1897)
    John Bickerdyke

    Source: Internet Archive


    This place has been visited from the earliest times by foot-sore pilgrims, who, remote from intrusion, in the midst of the broad bay of Scariff, some five or six miles from the Tipperary shore of the Shannon, and some three miles, at least, from our intended point of departure at the Clare side, pursued their devotions without interruption. The island was called the Island of Pilgrimage. The island is in the barony of Leitrim, county Galway. I should have stated that the view of the Holy Island from the shore imparted the most lively excitement; it was as if one were regarding some darling object which we had longed for years to behold, and which, at length, was well nigh within our anxious reach: there it lay, calm, green, filled with the storied remnants of antiquity, remarkable, above all, for the noble Round Tower of other days, which, towering upwards to the sky, is a thing of perennial, unfading sublimity, venerable in its mystic habit of a remote antiquity, and associated with myriads of legends, in the minds of the people holy, too, tranquil we may add, majestic, in those broad blue waters from which the island rises. p. 162

    "A Visit to Iniscaltra" (The journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. IX. Part III, 1889)
    Maurice Lenihan, J.P., M.R.I. A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    The island known as Inis Cealtra, though in modern times often spoken of as "Holy Island," lies in Scariff Bay, an inlet of Loch Derg. It is about eight miles, as the crow flies, north of Killaloe, and about seventeen chains from the nearest point of the mainland. p. 93

    Now in the day of the arrival of holy Colum at Inis Cealtra, the Lord made for him a supper. For there was in that island a tree by name tilia, [1] whose juice distilling filled a vessel; and that liquor had the flavour of honey and the headiness of wine. And with that best of liquors were holy Colum and his followers filled (saturati).

    Now Colum lived in Inis Cealtra for a long time, and the birds of heaven were wont to have friendly intercourse with him, and to sport, fluttering about his face. Then Nadcuimius [Nadchaoimhe], his pupil, said to him: 'Master, wherefore do the birds not flee from thee, whereas us they avoid?' To him Colum answered, 'Wherefore should birds flee from a bird ? For as a bird flieth, my mind never ceaseth to fly up to heaven.'

    [1] A glossator has inserted the words "scilicet leman." p. 95.

    "The History and Antiquities of Inis Cealtra" (Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Vol. XXXIII, 1916)
    R. A. S. Macalister, D.Litt., F.S.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    From the Shannon, where the hills are dark above the waters of the Red Lake, came Bove Derg, endlessly grieving for his grand-children, the cruelly transformed. They indeed came not, for the cold waters of the Moyle detained them, where they wandered swanlike Æd and Fiechra and comely Conn, and Finoola, their sister maternal, though so young. They themselves came not, but from the north out of the sea, proceeded slow, sweet fairy music, most heart-piercing, most beautiful. p. 265

    "History of Ireland (The Heroic Period)" (Vol. 1, 1878)
    Standish O'Grady

    Source: Internet Archive


    There is also a lake in that country which the natives call Loycha. In that lake there is what appears to be a little floating island; for it floats about in the lake, here and there approaching the shore sometimes so near that one may step out upon it; and this occurs most frequently on Sundays. And such is the property of this islet that if one who is ill steps out upon it and partakes of the herbs that grow there, he is healed at once, no matter what his ailment may be. Another singular fact is this, that never more than one can come upon it at one time, though many may wish to do so; for as soon as one has landed, the island immediately floats away. It also has this peculiarity that it floats constantly about in the lake for seven winters; but as soon as the seventh winter is past, it floats to the shore somewhere and unites with the other land, as if it had always been joined to it. But when that moment has come, a crash like a peal of thunder is heard, and, when the din is past, another island can be seen in the lake of the same size and character as the earlier one. Thus it happens regularly every seventh year that, as soon as the one island has joined the mainland, another appears, though no one knows whence it comes.[1] p. 107-8

    [1] See Ériu, IV, 6. Kuno Meyer knows of no such story in Irish folklore, but refers to similar tales told of floating islands in Wales and Scotland.

    "The King's Mirror (Speculum Regale Kunungs Skuggsjá)" (1917)
    Translated from the Old Norwegian by Laurence Marcellus Larson

    Source: Internet Archive


    To any one consulting a gazetteer, the two questions to be answered about any place are, first, "Where is it?" and second, "What about it?" -preface.

    Killaloe. town and par. with ry. sta., G. S. & W. R., E. co. Clare, on river Shannon, 17 miles NE. of Limerick par., 9978 ac. , pop. 1781; town, pop. 885; P.O., T.O. Market day, Tuesday. The station is at Ballina, on the opposite side of the river, which is here crossed by a bridge of 13 arches. The town has little or no trade; but it derives some advantage from the marble and slate quarries in the vicinity. There is a small pier for the Shannon steamers. The angling on the Shannon and Lough Derg (1 mile distant) attracts a number of visitors. The see of K. was founded in the 6th century by St. Dalua; the cathedral of St. Flannan (1160) is a venerable structure. "Kincora", the palace, of King Brian Boru, written of by Moore, stood at Killaloe. p. 442

    "The Survey Gazetteer of the British Isles, Topographical, Statistical and Commercial." (1904)
    J. G. Bartholomew

    Source: Internet Archive


    "Queen of the Irish Lakes" is the proud title borne by Lough Derg... It lies along the course of the Shannon for twenty-five miles, its extended banks forming a vast reservoir in which is gathered an immense volume of water.

    The steamer started at 8 a.m. to carry its few passengers across the lake and on up the river as far as Banagher. I was soon conscious of the impress of wondrously impressive conditions. The Emerald hills of Clare, Tipperary, and Galway stood around like Maids of Honor to the Queen. Bordered with rich and varied foliage, the far reaching Lough seemed all the more majestic beneath heavy skies. Storm clouds, like black steeds in rampage, chased across the heavens and down over the Galway horizon, followed by lighter formations through which the sun sifted his fire, streaking clouds, hills and lake with lines of glowing color. And so it continued through the morning, a soul moving vision in black, white, green and gold, - a scenic rhapsody of rare magnificence. How futile are the ordinary figures of speech as interpretations of nature's grander moods! I ventured as much in a casual remark to a stranger standing near by, and he readily agreed. It proved to be the opening of a conversation that lasted until he left the steamer at Portumna. p. 69-70

    "Around The Emerald Isle: A Record of Impressions" (1910)
    William Charles O'Donnell, Jr. Ph.D.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Beyond Bird Hill we soon run alongside the Shannon, and see, on an island in it, the ancient Church of St. Molua, who was the first bishop of Killaloe. Killaloe Station is on the E. side of the river, in the hamlet of Ballina, which is connected by a long bridge with Killaloe. (Shannnon View; Lake View; Royal). The situation of this episcopal village (pop. 1,000) is eminently beautiful, being at the foot of Lough Derg, which on its western side is dominated by the Slieve Bernagh range. The fishing both for trout and salmon is excellent, and though the latter is preserved the owners are exceedingly liberal. The Cathedral (re-opened after restoration, May 1887) is an interesting 12th cent, cruciform church. Notice externally the fine E. window of 3 lights. Inside, at the S.W. of the nave, is a fine Romanesque doorway. The old Font is also preserved. The ancient church of St. Flannan, 2nd bishop, A.D. 639, is in the graveyard to the N. of the cathedral, and has a remarkable steep stone roof. This building, and that of St. Molua's, above, are apparently contemporary with the bishops whose names they bear.

    Lough Derg is about 24 m. long from the inflow of the Shannon at Portumua to its outflow at Killaloe. The scenery at the S. end, and of the W. arm (Scarriff Bay) is very beautiful, and a boat can be had at Killaloe for 10s. a day, including men. p. 155

    "Ireland (Part II) East, West and South including Dublin and Howth" (1906)
    C. S. Ward, M.A.

    Source: Internet Archive


    Like all Irish lakes, with the exception of the great Lough Neagh, Lough Derg is of a very irregular form, with a multitude of bays and creeks, and side branches. Its southern part narrows to a point, and at last ends abruptly in a little cul-de-sac. The mountains nearest the lake, Slievh Bernagh, Knockermaun, &c., are very beautiful, and covered with grass, trees, and houses. Somewhat farther off, towards the right, Mount Inchiquin, and to the left the Keeper, which is about 25,000 feet high, tower above them; while among these mountains the traveller perceives the famous Devil's Bite, a very strange and deep cut in the ridge of a mountain, the origin of which the Irish can explain in no other way than by a somewhat humorous attack made by the devil, who probably mistook the ridges for the back of a fat Irish pig. He, however, spat out the bite again, for there is to be found, somewhere in Ireland, a piece of a rock that exactly fits the aforesaid cut. At the very end of the cul-de-sac lies the little town of Killaloe. p. 69

    "Travels in Ireland" (1844)
    Johann Georg Kohl

    Source: Internet Archive


    Killaloe has a poetic name, a romantic and beautiful location, and many legendary reminiscences of Irish valor and magnificence. It was the central residence of Brian Boroihme, the great hero and monarch of Irish patriotism.

    It has little else to boast of. The quays along the river, and the new pier at which the steamboats land, show some signs of life and business; but every thing else bears the stamp of time, neglect, and poverty. p. 305-6

    The scenery in this region is very fine. The beautiful valley through which the Shannon hurries its winding way, with broad plains on either side, with here and there a wooded hill, and the far off ranges in the distance, bounded by Slieve Pheling, Devil's Bit, Gottymore, and others of equal grandeur on the north, by the lofty mountains which approach to the very shores of the lake, just at its outlet; then the calm, clear waters spreading off to the north, with sinuosities penetrating far into the sides of the rugged mountains which border its shores - every thing is pleasing, varied, and romantic. p. 307

    "Ireland as I Saw It: The Condition, Character and Prospects of the People" (1850)
    Wm. S. Balch

    Source: Internet Archive


    Killaloe, Bourke's house across the river among rather ragged woods. "City" (I think with some high old church towers) standing high at the other end of the bridge, in dry trim country, at the foot of the long lough, was pleasant enough from the outside; one small skirt of it was all we travelled over. Lough now, with complex wooden and other apparatus for dispersing water; part of the questionable "Navigation of the Shannon". Questionable; indeed everywhere in Ireland one finds that the "Government", far from stinginess in public money towards Ireland, has erred rather on the other side; making, in all seasons, extensive hives for which the bees are not yet found. West side of Lough Derg: pleasant smooth-dry winding road. Clare hills stretching up, black-fretted, and with spots of culture, all treeless to perhaps 1500 or 2000 feet, gradually enough, on the left. Greener high hills on the other side of lake with extensive slate quarries, chief trade hereabouts. p. 23

    "Reminiscences of my Irish Journey in 1849" (1882)
    Thomas Carlyle

    Source: Internet Archive


    It would seem as if nature intended Ireland for a continent, and not for an island, by giving it lakes so entirely disproportioned to its size.

    Loch Derg, anciently called Deirgdheirc, and at present pronounced Dharrig by the peasantry, would be the most beautiful of all the great lakes of Ireland if its islands were as numerous as those of Loch Erne, or even of Loch Ree.

    The charms of Loch Derg are its semi-mountainous shores. It would be incorrect to call the bold hills on either side of the lake mountains, for very few of them reach an altitude of more than a thousand feet; but they are most graceful in their outlines, and are, for the most part, covered with luxuriant grass up to their very summits. The lake is by no means straight; its shores are tortuous and full of indentations, so that there is a good deal of change of scene when sailing on it. p. 231-2.

    "Beauties and Antiquities of Ireland: A Tourist's Guide to its most beautiful scenery & an Archaeologist's manual for its most interesting ruins." (1897)
    T. O. Russell

    Source: Internet Archive


    In the province of Mounster are three remarkable islands -

    On (1) no woman, and no animal of the female sex, can remain alive - a fact tested daily by strangers arriving at this place, with dogs, cats, &c., and found to be true.

    On (2) no human being can die, whence it is called Insula Vitae, or Angelorum, the island of the Living. For, although people become ill there, they do not die so long as they stay on the island.

    No. (3) has the special peculiarity that all birds flying there lose their power of flight in such a manner that they fall from the air on to the ground; so that every year a large number of birds are taken thus on this island.

    Here also is a spring from which it is quite impossible to draw, nor can its water be disturbed in the slightest degree: when that happens, there follows a tremendous rain, which floods the whole country. p. 396

    "A German View of Ireland, 1720"
    Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (Vol. XVI, Fifth Series, 1906)

    Source: Internet Archive


    A ship's company were on that expedition to Dún na mbarc [1]: Ceasair, and her ships lading, came to land there; namely, fifty women and three men, i.e. Bioth and Fionntain, and Ladhra, as we have said. It was that Ladhra, as we have said, who was the first dead person of Ireland, according to the folk who say that no people at all occupied Ireland before the deluge, but Ceasair and those who came with her. And from him is named Ard Ladhrann [2]. From Bioth Sliabh Beatha [3] is named; and from Fionntain is named Feart Fionntain over Tultuinne [4] in Duthaigh Aradh [5], near to Loch Deirgdheirc [6]. p. 145

    Know, O reader, that it is not as genuine history I set down this occupation, nor any occupation of which we have treated up to this; but because I have found them written in old books. And, moreover, I do not understand how the antiquaries obtained tidings of the people whom they assert to have come into Ireland before the deluge, except it be the aerial demons gave them to them, who were their fairy lovers during the time of their being pagans; or unless it be on flags of stones they found them graven after the subsiding of the deluge, if the story be true: for it is not to be said that it is that Fionntain who was before the deluge who would live after it... p. 147.

    [1] Probably Dúnnamark near Bantry (Joyce).

    [2] Probably Ardamine, Co. Wexford.

    [3] Near Monaghan.

    [4] Tultuinne, a hill near Killaloe.

    [5] The barony of Ara, Co. Tipperary.

    [6] Lough Derg.

    "The History of Ireland. The Introduction and The First Book of The History." (Volume I, 1902)
    Geoffrey Keating, D.D. (Edited with Translation and Notes by David Comyn M.R.I.A.)

    Source: Internet Archive