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    DEFINITIONS
    Sunday the 7th [1691]: Brigadier Talbot's, Saxby's, and Fitz-Gerald's Regiments of Foot marched at three of the clock in the morning. First to Tomgraney, five miles, a little ruined town, within half a mile of which is Scarriff, neither of them worth the noting but for the iron mills there formerly, now gone to decay. The road is all mountain with a wood along the Shannon. Hence we marched to Graig or as the English call it Woodford, eight miles over an uncouth barbarous mountain full of bogs and covered only with wild sedge, fern, and heath, without one house, cottage or so much as a living creature of any sort to be seen. In winter this way is impassable when the season is wet, but in a dry summer good, yet at best boggy in some places. The miles are long and the day was very hot without the least breath of wind, tiresome to the soldiers and to me.
    At Woodford there is an iron work in the bottom upon a small river that falls into the Shannon: the town stands on the hill above it.
    The bridge at Tomgraney joins, or rather the river that runs under it parts, the county of Clare from that of Galway, the same being also the bounds of the provinces of Munster and Connaught.

    Journal of John Stevens, 1689-1691 (pub. 1912)
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    Detail from the Tanner map of Ireland, 1836.
    Above: detail from the Tanner map of Ireland, 1836.
    Map © Cartography Associates, from the Rumsey Collection.

    Left: detail from satellite photo (click for larger version).

    Charon (MIT Project) 1989, James Coleman ©