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    The road passes over the edge of the hill below the great Cratloe Forest, once famous for its oaks. Over this pass King Muircheartach "of the leather coats," crossed in the winter of A.D. 941. His historian expresses horror at the pass of Cratshallagh in his poem on "The Circuit of Ireland"; they camped on the "cold Magh Adhair" afterwards. In May, 1318, King Murchad O’Brien, after his fruitless peace conference with Sir Richard de Clare at Limerick, marched by Cratloe into Ui Aimrid, and on "past hazel woody Ballymulcashel" and Cullaun to Tulla, while de Clare returned to Bunratty on the high tide in bright moonlight, a statement which Dr Joly (the late Astronomer Royal) verified by calculation and found to be correct...
    On January 26th, 1276, King Edward I. of England, out of his bounty, graciously granted to Sir Thomas de Clare, younger son of Richard, Earl of Gloucester, the whole of Thomond, to be held in tail.
    Westropp, Macalister & Macnamara, 1916
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    Detail from Weiland map of Ireland, 1853.
    Above: detail from Weiland map of Ireland, 1853
    . Map © Cartography Associates, from the
    Rumsey Collection.

    Left: detail from satellite photo (click for larger version).

    Charon (MIT Project) 1989, James Coleman ©